History of Punjabi Language

Punjabi Bethak

Punjabi Language

Punjabi language, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, is one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. The old British spelling “Punjabi” remains in more common general usage than the academically precise “Panjabi.” In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. It is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution. In Pakistan, Punjabi is spoken by some 70 million speakers, mostly in Punjab province, but official status at both the national and the provincial level is reserved for Urdu. There are also important overseas communities of Punjabi speakers, particularly in Canada and the United Kingdom—where in the early 21st century they respectively constituted the third and fourth largest linguistic groups in the national populations—as well as in several parts of the United States.

Punjabi in India

The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 along religious lines was marked by particular violence in Punjab, where ethnic cleansing and exchange of populations resulted in the expulsion of most Punjabi-speaking Muslims from India and of Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan. Whereas the Muslims had strongly identified with Urdu and the Hindus with Hindi, it was the Sikhs who had particularly identified with the Punjabi cause. The Gurmukhi script was first used to record the Sikh scriptures, the Adi Granth, in 1604. Furthermore, Sikh writers were mainly responsible for developing Punjabi as a modern standard language, and the Sikh political leadership in 1966 finally achieved the goal of an albeit truncated state with Punjabi as its official language.

That is officially recognized Indian Punjabi is generally taken as standard in descriptions of the languages. There is a significant degree of mutual intelligibility between Hindi and Urdu, although the three languages are sharply differentiated by their scripts, and Punjabi is historically distinguished by its retention of Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) doubled consonants following a short vowel, so that Sanskrit Akshi ‘Eye’ becomes MIA akkhi and Punjabi akkh, versus Hindi-Urdu aankh. Phonetically, the most prominent distinguishing feature of standard Punjabi is the realization of historical voiced aspiration as tones, so that, for example, Hindi-Urdu Ghora ‘horse’ appears in Punjabi as k’òra (with glottal constriction and low-rising tone) and Hindi-Urdu rah ‘way’ as Punjabi rá (with high-falling tone).

Punjabi in Pakistan

In Pakistan, the Standard Punjabi dialect is not referred to as the ‘Majhi dialect’, Which may be considered as ‘Indian terminology’, but rather simply as ‘Standard Punjabi’.This dialect is widely used in the TV and entertainment industry, which is mainly produced in Lahore.

In Pakistan the general maintenance of the historical preference for Urdu has stood in the way of those who looked to achieve an increased status for Punjabi, albeit in a form more obviously influenced in its script and vocabulary by Urdu and So itself somewhat different from standard Indian Punjabi. Since Pakistan Punjab is much larger and less homogeneous than its Indian counterpart, its internal linguistic variety has also encouraged opposition to the Punjabi activists based in the provincial capital of Lahore by rival groups based in the less prosperous outlying areas of the province, notably by the proponents of Siraiki in the southwestern districts, whose claims to separate linguistic status was vigorously disputed by adherents to the Punjabi cause. There are the usual conflicting claims about the great writers of the past. But all devotees of the Punjabi literary tradition, in both India and Pakistan, find the supreme expression of their shared cultural identity in the rich expression of the Muslim poet Waris (or Varis) Shah’s great romance Hir (1766; also spelled Heer).

Standard Punjabi

Standard Punjabi sometimes referred to as Majhi in India or simply Punjabi, is the most widespread and largest dialect of Punjabi.

In Pakistan, the Standard Punjabi dialect is not referred to as the ‘Majhi dialect’, which may be considered as ‘Indian terminology’,  but rather simply as ‘Standard Punjabi  This dialect is widely used in the TV and entertainment industry, which is mainly produced in Lahore.

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